). After all, if the new measurement procedure, which uses different measures (i.e., has different content), but measures the same construct, is strongly related to the well-established measurement procedure, this gives us more confidence in the construct validity of the existing measurement procedure. A mathematics teacher develops an end-of-semester algebra test for her class. Criterion validity is demonstrated when there is a strong relationship between the scores from the two measurement procedures, which is typically examined using a correlation. multitrait-multimethod matrix. From: Addictive Behaviors, 2012. The new measurement procedure may only need to be modified or it may need to be completely altered. This is an extremely important point. Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Convergent and criterion-related validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scale.'. Revised on Convergent and divergent validity. It is usually an established or widely-used test that is already considered valid. Again, measurement involves assigning scores to individuals so that they represent some characteristic of the individuals. The test should cover every form of algebra that was taught in the class. Second, I make a distinction between two broad types: translation validity and criterion-related validity. intelligence) is actually measuring that construct. Constructs can be characteristics of individuals, such as intelligence, obesity, job satisfaction, or depression; they can also be broader concepts applied to organizations or social groups, such as gender equality, corporate social responsibility, or freedom of speech. Nonetheless, the new measurement procedure (i.e., the translated measurement procedure) should have criterion validity; that is, it must reflect the well-established measurement procedure upon which is was based. Discriminant validity tests whether believed unrelated constructs are, in fact, unrelated. To account for a new context, location and/or culture where well-established measurement procedures may need to be modified or completely altered. Convergent validity is one of the topics related to construct validity (Gregory, 2007). Construct validity is thus an assessment of the quality of an instrument or experimental design. Convergent Validity – When two similar questions reveal the same result. In order to estimate this type of validity, test-makers administer the test and correlate it with the criteria. The criteria are measuring instruments that the test-makers previously evaluated. This is related to how well the experiment is operationalized. It’s similar to content validity, but face validity is a more informal and subjective assessment. Criterion validity is the most powerful way to establish a pre-employment test’s validity. In the section discussing validity, the manual does not break down the evidence by type of validity. But based on existing psychological research and theory, we can measure depression based on a collection of symptoms and indicators, such as low self-confidence and low energy levels. Since the English and French languages have some base commonalities, the content of the measurement procedure (i.e., the measures within the measurement procedure) may only have to be modified. This well-established measurement procedure acts as the criterion against which the criterion validity of the new measurement procedure is assessed. Together they form a unique fingerprint. Testing for this type of validity requires that you essentially ask your sample similar questions that are designed to … Convergent validity takes two measures that are supposed to be measuring the same construct and shows that they are related. The questionnaire must include only relevant questions that measure known indicators of depression. As a result, there is a need to take a well-established measurement procedure, which acts as your criterion, but you need to create a new measurement procedure that is more appropriate for the new context, location, and/or culture. However, it can be useful in the initial stages of developing a method. External validity is about generalization: To what extent can an effect in research, be generalized to populations, settings, treatment variables, and measurement variables?External validity is usually split into two distinct types, population validity and ecological validity and they are both essential elements in judging the strength of an experimental design. Both types of validity are a requirement for excellent construct validity. You create a survey to measure the regularity of people’s dietary habits. Concurrent validity pertains to the extent to which the measurement tool relates to other scales measuring the same construct and that have already been validated (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955). To achieve construct validity, you have to ensure that your indicators and measurements are carefully developed based on relevant existing knowledge. Criterion validity (concurrent and predictive validity) There are many occasions when you might choose to use a well-established measurement procedure (e.g., a 42-item survey on depression) as the basis to create a new measurement procedure (e.g., a 19-item survey on depression) to measure the construct you are interested in (e.g., depression, sleep quality, employee commitment, etc. Concurrent vs. Predictive Validity Concurrent validity is one of the two types of criterion-related validity . Related terms: Test-Retest Reliability; Factor Analysis; Criterion Validity; Discriminant Validity; Predictive Validity; Rating Scale If you are doing experimental research, you also need to consider internal and external validity, which deal with the experimental design and the generalizability of results. If it doesn’t show any signs of this validity, it may be measuring something else. extent to which the test NOT correlates with other tests, which measure unrelated criterions. Content validity assesses whether a test is representative of all aspects of the construct. However, such content may have to be completely altered when a translation into Chinese is made because of the fundamental differences in the two languages (i.e., Chinese and English). On the bottom part of the figure (Observation) w… Again, measurement involves assigning scores to individuals so that they represent some characteristic of the individuals. There are a number of reasons why we would be interested in using criterions to create a new measurement procedure: (a) to create a shorter version of a well-established measurement procedure; (b) to account for a new context, location, and/or culture where well-established measurement procedures need to be modified or completely altered; and (c) to help test the theoretical relatedness and construct validity of a well-established measurement procedure. To establish convergent validity, you need to show that measures that should be related are in reality related. Criterion validity refers to the ability of the test to predict some criterion behavior external to the test itself. Validity contains the concepts of content, face, criterion, concurrent, predictive, construct, convergent (and divergent), factorial and discriminant. Convergent validity is a subcategory of construct validity. When they do not, this suggests that new measurement procedures need to be created that are more appropriate for the new context, location, and/or culture of interest. Convergent validity states that tests having the same or similar constructs should be highly correlated. Criterion validity. A. Criterion-related validity Predictive validity. It says 'Does it measure the cons… This type of validity is similar to predictive validity. Testing for concurrent validity is likely to be simpler, more cost-effective, and less time intensive than predictive validity. Discriminant validity (or divergent validity) tests that constructs that should have no relationship do, in fact, not have any relationship. -> correlation decreases->threat to criterion validity. the importance of criterion-related validity depends on. The answer is that they conduct research using the measure to confirm that the scores make sense based on their understanding of th… As face validity is a subjective measure, it’s often considered the weakest form of validity. There are, however, some limitations to criterion -related validity… Therefore, you have to create new measures for the new measurement procedure. If some aspects are missing from the measurement (or if irrelevant aspects are included), the validity is threatened. Sometimes just finding out more about the construct (which itself must be valid) can be helpful. Criterion validity evaluates how closely the results of your test correspond to the … Convergent validity tests that constructs that are expected to be related are, in fact, related. Criterion validity A measurement technique has criterion validity if its results are closely related to those given by You want to create a shorter version of an existing measurement procedure, which is unlikely to be achieved through simply removing one or two measures within the measurement procedure (e.g., one or two questions in a survey), possibly because this would affect the content validity of the measurement procedure [see the article: Content validity]. ), provided that they yield quantitative data. We also stated that a measurement procedure may be longer than would be preferable, which mirrors that argument above; that is, that it's easier to get respondents to complete a measurement procedure when it's shorter. C onvergent validity and discriminant validity are commonly regarded as ways to assess the construct validity of a measurement procedure (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). Validity tells you how accurately a method measures something. Reliability contains the concepts of internal consistency and stability and equivalence. To produce valid results, the content of a test, survey or measurement method must cover all relevant parts of the subject it aims to measure. Conversely, discriminant validityshows that two measures that are not supposed to be related are in fact, unrelated. If you think of contentvalidity as the extent to which a test correlates with (i.e., corresponds to) thecontent domain, criterion validity is similar in that it is the extent to which atest … • If the test has the desired correlation with the criterion, the n you have sufficient evidence for criterion -related validity. It is a parameter used in sociology, psychology, and other psychometric or behavioral sciences. In the context of questionnaires the term criterion validity is used to mean the extent to which items on a questionnaire are actually measuring the real-world states or events that they are intended to measure. Convergent validity, a parameter often used in sociology, psychology, and other behavioral sciences, refers to the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related. You need to consider the purpose of the study and measurement procedure; that is, whether you are trying (a) to use an existing, well-established measurement procedure in order to create a new measurement procedure (i.e., concurrent validity), or (b) to examine whether a measurement procedure can be used to make predictions (i.e., predictive validity). Convergent Validity is a sub-type of construct validity. A construct refers to a concept or characteristic that can’t be directly observed, but can be measured by observing other indicators that are associated with it. On its surface, the survey seems like a good representation of what you want to test, so you consider it to have high face validity. However, rather than assessing criterion validity, per se, determining criterion validity is a choice between establishing concurrent validity or predictive validity. Convergent validity refers to how closely the new scale is related to other variables and other measures of the same construct. verbal reasoning should be related to other types of reasoning, like visual reasoning. Two methods are often applied to test convergent validity. If the outcomes are very similar, the new test has a high criterion validity. A university professor creates a new test to measure applicants’ English writing ability. This may be a time consideration, but it is also an issue when you are combining multiple measurement procedures, each of which has a large number of measures (e.g., combining two surveys, each with around 40 questions). In research, it is common to want to take measurement procedures that have been well-established in one context, location, and/or culture, and apply them to another context, location, and/or culture. The measurement procedures could include a range of research methods (e.g., surveys, structured observation, or structured interviews, etc. In this article, we first explain what criterion validity is and when it should be used, before discussing concurrent validity and predictive validity, providing examples of both. You review the survey items, which ask questions about every meal of the day and snacks eaten in between for every day of the week. These are two different types of criterion validity, each of which has a specific purpose. If anything is still unclear, or if you didn’t find what you were looking for here, leave a comment and we’ll see if we can help. by A measurement procedure can be too long because it consists of too many measures (e.g., a 100 question survey measuring depression). Thanks for reading! Fiona Middleton. If some types of algebra are left out, then the results may not be an accurate indication of students’ understanding of the subject. From: The Measurement of Health and Health Status, 2017. Ps… This sometimes encourages researchers to first test for the concurrent validity of a new measurement procedure, before later testing it for predictive validity when more resources and time are available. There are two things to think about when choosing between concurrent and predictive validity: The purpose of the study and measurement procedure. Criterion validity evaluates how closely the results of your test correspond to the results of a different test. There are four main types of validity: Note that this article deals with types of test validity, which determine the accuracy of the actual components of a measure. include concurrent validity, construct validity, content validity, convergent validity, criterion validity, discriminant validity, divergent validity, face validity, and predictive validity. It could also be argued that testing for criterion validity is an additional way of testing the construct validity of an existing, well-established measurement procedure. Or is it actually measuring the respondent’s mood, self-esteem, or some other construct? Criterion validity:In this validity, the extent to which the outcome of a specific measure or tool corresponds to the outcomes of other valid measures of the same concept is examined. If you develop a questionnaire to diagnose depression, you need to know: does the questionnaire really measure the construct of depression? For example, participants that score high on the new measurement procedure would also score high on the well-established test; and the same would be said for medium and low scores. Construct Validity: Convergent vs. Discriminant. Example of Predictive (criterion-related validity) ... example of convergent validity. Divergent Validity – When two opposite questions reveal opposite results. Criterion validity is a good test of whether such newly applied measurement procedures reflect the criterion upon which they are based. A) convergent validity B) discriminant validity C) criterion validity Apparently, the right answer is A), but I think you could still argue for C) in the following manner: Scores on the final exam is the outcome measure and GPA, amount of time spent studying, and class attendance predict it. Hope you found this article helpful. convergent validity. To assess how well the test really does measure students’ writing ability, she finds an existing test that is considered a valid measurement of English writing ability, and compares the results when the same group of students take both tests. The criterion is an external measurement of the same thing. Criterion related validity refers to how strongly the scores on the test are related to other behaviors. You will have to build a case for the criterion validity of your measurement procedure; ultimately, it is something that will be developed over time as more studies validate your measurement procedure. The advantage of criterion -related validity is that it is a relatively simple statistically based type of validity! 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