Garland‐Thomson, Rosemarie. Leader Ed Roberts called disabled people “one of the largest minority groups in the nation,” emphasizing their new feeling of a shared identity (Nielsen 2012: 168). The social model not only made a collective identity possible, joining together people with a wide range of bodily conditions, but also presented disabled citizens as holders of rights. Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity. (Previously, various kinds of disabled people, like blind citizens and disabled veterans, usually advocated separately for their own interests.) MA: Harvard University Press. Still, the relationship between biology and culture, between essentialism and cultural constructivism, has some unique complications in the case of disability and has been an area of debate. 1978, c.1976. ), Publisher: SensePublishers, Year: 2015 2006. New York: New York University Press. Focusing on representations of disability, the Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies (JLCDS) publishes a wide variety of textual analyses that are informed by disability theory and, by extension, experiences of disability. Foucault, Michel. For instance, people with severe congenital disabilities have served as “icons upon whom people discharge their anxieties, convictions, and fantasies” and reify their own sense of ordinariness (1997: 56). References (16MB), Series: Interdisciplinary Disability Studies, Publisher: Ashgate Publishing Company, Year: 2015 Literatures of Madness: Disability Studies and Mental Health brings together scholars working in disability studies, mad studies, feminist theory, Indigenous studies, postcolonial theory, Jewish literature, queer studies, American studies, trauma studies, and comics to create an intersectional community of scholarship in literary disability studies of mental health. “Signifying Bodies: Life Writing and Disability Studies.” In Disability Studies: Enabling the Humanities, ed. The Ugly Laws: Disability in Public. As the field of literary disability studies quickly matured, some scholars pointed out that it was an overwhelmingly white and Euro‐American enterprise that needed to focus more on non‐Western literature and on writing by people of color. While the field has always been interdisciplinary and cognizant of other identity‐based disciplines—for example, in using other identity theories, in advocating for rights, or in Garland‐Thomson’s effort to bring disability studies and feminism together back in 1997—recent works have shown a renewed commitment to exploring how disability intersects with other forms of identity. (5MB), Author(s): G N Karna; Society for Disability and Rehabilitation Studies (New Delhi, India), Publisher: Gyan Publishing House, Year: 2001 McRuer, Robert. Meanwhile, a disability lens often gave back by usefully revising or correcting previously accepted concepts. 'This book assembles an impressive array of scholars whose collective work changes the terrain of disability studies and biblical scholarship. A disability studies perspective examines how disability is socially constructed in society and can shed light on how literature reflects the social conditions within which it was written. (3MB), Series: Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization, Publisher: Cambridge University Press, Year: 2014 For example, some culturally Deaf people who use sign language see themselves as members of a proud linguistic minority and not in any way disabled (other Deaf signers, acknowledging the obstacles they typically face in a hearing society, consider themselves both). Home › Disability Studies › Disability Studies, By Nasrullah Mambrol on December 15, 2018 • ( 2 ). ), Series: Interdisciplinary disability studies, Author(s): Rachel Adams (ed. Tom Shakespeare, while saying the social model was crucial, called for more sophisticated methods that recognize disability as a phenomenon “requiring different levels of analysis and intervention, ranging from the medical to the socio‐political” (Shakespeare 2006: 204). In literature, many critics examine works to understand how representations of disability and “normal” bodies change throughout history, including the ways both are defined within the limits of historical or cultural situations. Cultural Locations of Disability. (12MB), Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd, Year: 2011 (5MB), Author(s): Blake Howe, Stephanie Jensen-Moulton, Neil Lerner, Joseph Straus (eds. Between 1835 and 1940, such shows were especially popular in Europe and the United States. Disability is, as he put it at the outset, “ubiquitous,” and he argued that ubiquity deserves greater recognition and exploration (Bérubé 2016: 1). Narrative Prosthesis: Disability and the Dependencies of Discourse. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Like Lennard J. Davis, Mitchell and Snyder contended that narratives often buttress the norm. New York: The Modern Language Association. Bérubé, Michael. Useful Subject Words: disability, disabilities, including words describing specific disabilities. Adams, Rachel. 2015. Nice and informative article, it helps me to get an idea about litrary disability studies. Or it can be normality, as in Nancy Mairs’s Waist High in the World (1997) and other memoirs and autobiographies by disabled people whose disability is simply part of life. They are discussed as below. Davis, Lennard J. ), Publisher: New York University Press, Year: 2015 Starting in the late 1960s, disabled activists in the United States and the United Kingdom began to argue they were a group and denied basic rights. Davis suggested that nineteenth‐century novels often reinforce this idea of the norm by featuring protagonists who are ordinary, non‐heroic citizens, while disabled characters, like Hippolyte in Flaubert’s Madame Bovary (1857) or Tiny Tim in Dickens’s A Christmas Carol (1843), typically have marginal roles. For example, in a reading of William and Ellen Craft’s account of escaping slavery, Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom (1860), she noted not just Ellen Craft’s racial passing, but also her enacting masculinity and disability (she pretends to be deaf) to find liberty. (2MB), Author(s): Nick Watson, Alan Roulstone, Carol Thomas, Author(s): Gary L. Albrecht, Katherine Delores Seelman, Michael Bury, Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc, Year: 2001 The fourth edition of the reader has just been released in February. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. 2016. Enforcing Normalcy: Deafness, Disability, and the Body. They outlined several stages of this process. Perhaps the most distinguishing, even radical, feature of disability studies is that it has approached disability primarily as a social and political phenomenon. "The Disability Studies Reader edited by Lennard J. Davis is to the field of Disability Studies what the Norton anthologies are to literature. Disability studies considers disability in political, aesthetic, ethical, and cultural contexts, among others. In 2002 Lennard J.  Davis argued that an insistence on social construction alone was intellectually unsatisfactory. It is an essential disability studies journal for scholars whose work concentrates on the portrayal of disability. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Such activism not only contributed to a string of legislative victories that banned discrimination and improved access and inclusion (including the landmark Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990), but also gave disabled people a sense of pride and community. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. In Enforcing Normalcy (1995), Lennard J. Davis put normalcy on the table for critical investigation, much as scholars in critical race studies had begun studying whiteness, a previously invisible, unremarked concept. Cassuto, Leonard. Early scholarship distinguishes the medical model of disability, which locates physical and mental impairments in individual bodies, from the social model, which understands the world as … Philadelphia: Temple University Press. “The Social Model of Disability.” In The Disability Studies Reader, ed. Disability Theory. At the same time, some scholars in literary disability studies have chosen to study literary representations of specific kinds of disability. 2013. Adding nuance and deep expertise to the discourse, Disability Studies and Biblical Literature shows us how superficial and general has been much of the previous discussion of religious attitudes toward people with disabilities in the western world. The lesser the ability, the lesser the human being” (Siebers 2008: 10). Introduction to Disability Studies: 3: ENGLISH 175: Literature and Disability: 4: or CY PLAN 120: Community Planning and Public Policy for Disability: Select Three Electives From The Following: 12: ANTHRO 115: Introduction to Medical Anthropology: 4: ANTHRO 119: Special Topics in Medical Anthropology: 4: ARCH 169 Representing Autism: Culture, Narrative, and Fascination. (2MB), Series: Routledge Advances in Disability Studies, Author(s): Tim Corcoran, Julie White, Ben Whitburn (eds. Lecturer in English PSC Solved Question Paper, http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull, International Article Writing Competition, Freaks: Myths and Images of the Secret Self, NTA UGC NET English June 2020 Questions and Answers. He developed this point further in 2002, arguing that a binary distinction between normal and abnormal underpins the rise of the novel. “Disability and Narrative.” PMLA 120 (2): 568–76. Wu, Cynthia. Bérubé, Michael. Taken together, such work in disability studies revealed that what people conceive as normal is not unchanging but varies with time and place. Together with disability activism, such work prepared the way for disability studies. By “refusing the medicalization of disability,” Linton wrote, disability activism and later disability studies emphasized how disabled people are connected, not by personal symptoms, but by “social and political circumstances that have forged us as a group” (Linton 1998: 2, 4). “Normal.” Keywords for Disability Studies, ed. In her 1998 manifesto for the field, Claiming Disability, Simi Linton summed up the most important benefits of using the social model. Disability studies emerged out of the disability civil rights movement in the late twentieth century. ... dictionaries, dissertations, and conference papers on literature, languages, folklore and linguistics. First, just as second‐wave feminist scholars explored representations of women in male‐ authored texts, or critical race and postcolonial specialists considered depictions of African Americans or colonized people in books written by American or European white writers, so critics in literary disability studies investigated disabled characters in canonical works by mostly non‐disabled authors. He showed how both ableism (discrimination or prejudice against disabled people in favor of able‐bodied people) and heteronormativity support each other, pressuring people to behave in socially acceptable ways. Although normalcy might seem something constant and neutral, Davis showed that the word norm with its present meaning arose only in the mid‐nineteenth century with the Industrial Revolution and the advent of statistics (before then, he maintained, the concept of the ideal was paramount). Quayson, Ato. http:// http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull. 1997. Nielsen, Kim. ), Series: Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights, Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press, Year: 2013 This difference was defined by ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health) produced by the World Health Organization.Different conceptual models are used to understand the disability and explain its integration with the study. When Clare Barker published Postcolonial Fiction and Disability (2011), it marked one of the first book‐length interventions focused on physical, sensory, and cognitive difference in postcolonial literature, advancing the work in this area. Elizabeth J. Donaldson is Professor of English and Associate Dean of Curriculum and Student Engagement at New York Institute of Technology, where she teaches courses in bioethics and American literature and directs the Medical Humanities program. New York: The Modern Language Association. (1MB), Series: Routledge Studies in Cultural History 14, Author(s): Elsayed Elshabrawy Ahmad Hassanein (auth. New York: New York University Press. El Paso, TX: Cinco Puntos Press. The History of Sexuality, Vol. They demonstrated that disability, which might initially seem marginal, is actually pervasive and does significant cultural work. Disability Studies English Literature and Culture. New York: The Modern Language Association. Fiedler, Leslie. In another area, many critics have followed Garland‐Thomson by publishing multidisciplinary studies of freakery and its afterlives. By expressing a collective voice and turning attention away from the medicalization of individual bodies to the organization of society, such activism also led to the emergence of disability studies. Rather than trying to diagnose characters with disabilities, scholars in literary disability studies investigate the almost bewildering number of functions that the representations of disability perform. Schweik, Susan. Going Forward: Disability and Intersectionality. “A Short History of the 504 Sit In” (accessed June 1, 2016). Snyder, Sharon. However, such writing is in short supply, perhaps, as Leonard Cassuto surmises, because of the “wretched treatment of disabled people over history” and because those authors who did publish did not want the highly stigmatized label of “disabled” (Cassuto 2010: 219). Quayson, Ato. ), Marianne Schulze (ed. Even more explicitly, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (ratified in 2008) says that “disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.” Such examples show that the conception of disability as the product of both the social environment and the body has gained traction on a national and global level. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Similarly, a few years later Tobin Siebers identified a powerful but largely invisible “ideology of ability” that permeates society, which he said is often a “baseline by which humanness is determined. That same year, the journal MELUS published a special issue on “Race, Ethnicity, Disability, and Literature,” and soon thereafter scholars such as Schweik and Ellen Samuels made race a prominent part of their monographs. Davis, Lennard J. 2011. Disability studies is an interdisciplinary academic tradition comprising disciplines spanning from sociology and educational sciences to ethics and literature. Finally, she pointed out that while the medical model typically consigned disabled people to the care of health professionals and other specialists, the social model turned attention outward, making disability a fruitful topic of inquiry for a range of academic disciplines that in the past have had little to say about the subject. Disability Studies aims to make scholars, students, and contemporary citizens aware of the ideas of disabilities prevalent throughout society. http://dredf. A final factor that shaped the emergence of the field was the rise of other identity‐based, rights‐influenced approaches, especially critical race, feminist, and queer theory, which yielded significant new insights in the humanities. Initially, the field focused on the division between "impairment" and "disability", where impairment was an impairment of an individual's mind or body, … ), Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan US, Year: 2013 (1MB), Series: Disability studies (Nova Science Publishers), Publisher: Nova Science, Year: 2010 In Thomas Couser’s words: “autobiography warrants study not just as all too rare first‐person testimony about disabling conditions but also as potentially powerful counter discourse to the prevailing discourse of disability” (Couser 2002: 109). Reading and Writing Bodies: Disability Studies Meets Literary Theory A Disability History of the United States. (2MB), Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan US, Year: 2015 In 2002, Ato Quayson called for more attention to disability in postcolonial texts, noting that both disability studies and postcolonial studies had similar interests in power relations and identity. Disabilities in Children's Literature The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed to ensure that people with disabilities have the power (and the rights) to live their lives with integrity, without shame or prejudice that is so embedded in our disability-phobic culture. Mitchell, David, and Sharon Snyder. We treat disability as a political, cultural and social process, placing as much importance on structures, relations and representations as on individual bodies. News organizations publicized the sit‐in and other groups offered their support. Probing representations of such characters has become a staple of literary disability studies, revealing hidden patterns and expanding the way canonical narratives are read. While much research remains to be done on disability in postcolonial and ethnic literature, such work shows the potential for new readings and knowledge. Kafer, Alison. Disability is indeed ubiquitous in literature and film. From Shakespeare’s limping Richard III to the blind inhabitants of Wells’s “The Country of the Blind” (1904), from the cognitively disabled Benjy Compson in Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury (1929) to McCullers’s deaf John Singer in The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter (1940), from Achebe’s stuttering Okonkwo in Things Fall Apart (1958) to Sinha’s physically deformed narrator in Animal’s People (2007), disability shows up in every period and literary tradition. Academic work. New York: Columbia University Press. Disability studies thus reminds us that everyone has a stake in how disabled people are treated. Feminist, Queer, Crip. Now, through books like Stuart Murray’s Representing Autism (2008), that gap has begun to be addressed. Such intersectional approaches helped disability studies to emerge as a consequential, exciting intellectual pursuit with an activist orientation. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! (2MB), Author(s): David J. Connor, Jan W. Valle, Chris Hale, Publisher: Peter Lang Publishing Inc., Year: 2014 They noted that cultural meanings of normalcy and disability might differ from the West and cautioned against simply exporting Western disability theories. Theoretically, a disability can be the result of 1. Click on the link to get to the online issues. Sharon L. Snyder, Brenda Jo Brueggemann, and Rosemarie Garland‐Thomson, 173–96. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Because the stigma surrounding disability is still quite pervasive (cultures everywhere still often equate disability with being broken or disqualified), some people who are legally considered disabled have been uncomfortable with accepting the disability label. The Americans’ Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), for instance, defines disability not just as “a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities” or “a record of such impairment,” but also as “being regarded as having such an impairment.” The last part of the definition acknowledges the importance of social attitudes and perspectives in forming disability. Chen, Mel. To people accustomed to thinking of disability as a medical problem located in an individual’s body (the overwhelmingly dominant view of disability since the nineteenth century), such an approach may come as a surprise. 2000. (1MB), Author(s): Michael Gill (ed.). Garland‐Thomson, Rosemarie. 1978. Bogdan, Robert. It can represent moral deficit or evil, as in the case of Shakespeare’s Richard III (c.1592); or it can be part of a sudden epiphany, such as when Tom Robinson reveals his withered left arm during the trial in To Kill a Mockingbird (1960). 1988. Interdisciplinary Dialogues: Disability and Postcolonial Studies Clare Barker, Ph.D. University of Leeds, UK Abstract: Disability is a constitutive material presence in many postcolonial societies but remains surprisingly absent as a subject of analysis in the field of Postcolonial Studies. Reading with the material lives of disabled people in mind, scholars like Davis (1995) and Mitchell and Snyder (2000) noted how such discourse increases the negative cultural meanings and the stigma of having a disability. Lecturer in English PSC Solved Question Paper, Contemporary Issues in Intellectual Disabilities (Disability Studies), Disability in Medieval Europe: Thinking about Physical Impairment in the High Middle Ages, c.1100-c.1400, Social Histories of Disability and Deformity: Bodies, Images and Experiences, Mental Illness and Learning Disability Since 1850: Finding a Place for Mental Disorder in the United Kingdom, Mental Disability and the European Convention on Human Rights, Rethinking Disability: Bodies, Senses, and Things, Learning Re-Abled: The Learning Disability Controversy and Composition Studies, Disability Studies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction, Purpose, Process and Future Direction of Disability Research, Contemporary issues in intellectual disabilities, Disability Studies in India : Retrospects and Prospects, A Social History of Disability in the Middle Ages: Cultural Considerations of Physical Impairment, Disability in the Ottoman Arab World, 1500-1800, Disability, Human Rights and the Limits of Humanitarianism, Youth and Disability: A Challenge to Mr Reasonable, Practicing Disability Studies in Education: Acting Toward Social Change, Changing Social Attitudes Toward Disability: Perspectives from historical, cultural, and educational studies, Crises, Conflict and Disability: Ensuring Equality, Disability Studies: Educating for Inclusion, The Oxford Handbook of Music and Disability Studies, Disability Studies and Biblical Literature, Emerging Perspectives on Disability Studies, Disability Services and Disability Studies in Higher Education: History, Contexts, and Social Impacts, Disabled Childhoods: Monitoring Differences and Emerging Identities, The Palgrave Handbook of Disabled Children’s Childhood Studies, NTA UGC NET English June 2020 Questions and Answers. 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