The abstract word powers or authorities ( exousia) is used for those who are invested with power, Luke 12:11; Ephesians 1:21; Ephesians 3:10, etc (Romans 13 - Hodge's Commentary on Romans), Paul well understood "exousia" as illustrated by (Acts 26:10, 26:12). From the permission, or liberty of doing as one pleases, it passed to that of the ability or strength with which one is endued, then to that of the power and authority, the right to exercise power; liberty of doing as one pleases. A believer's submission and dedication to God nor their citizenship in His Kingdom, does not negate or replace his responsibility to the secular authorities. a. The perfect tense conveys the idea of a fixed and determined opposition to authority, not just one slip up. The only other NT use (once in Ezra 4:11) of diatage is. The "prince of the kingdom of Persia" was clearly a demon and the designation "of Persia" suggests he in some way exerted influence over the human government of Persia. This is contrary to the usage of the term, and inconsistent with the context. Paul said that governments are ordained of God (Rom. If it commands us to disobey the common laws of humanity, or the sacred institutions of our country, our obedience is due to the higher and more general law, rather than the lower and particular. A misunderstanding of Romans 13 will lead Yah’s professed people to comply with man-made laws. I am indebted to Dr. Robert Milliman and his blog-post Love and War: Romans 13.1 – 7 in the Context of 12.9 – 13.10 (2011) for the initial idea of examining this passage in its context to avoid mis-readings of the text which have been used to justify everything from totalitarian regimes to … Romans 13 is widely used to deceive Christians into obeying unrighteous laws and giving support to tyrannical governments. It is a solemn duty to stand for truth. And Nero came at the Christians with a new vengeance. Meet new people from all over the world, make friends, change your status, upload photos, earn points, & so much more! (Romans - Moody Publishing), Henry Alford - “We may observe that the apostle here pays no regard to the question of the duty of Christians in revolutionary movements. In the near future, this same passage will be used to uphold the counterfeit Sabbath. Human beings were invested with authority by the Creator – the power to choose for oneself what one will do. This view goes back to Calvin’s Institutes (ibid.). 13:1), and that we are to pray for those in authority over us (1Ti 2:1-2). In this verse, the perfect tense pictures a past completed action with present ongoing effect or result and so could be translated "Have been ordained and the ordinance remains in force." Just a thought to ponder. Paul therefore will give practical instructions on how a believer should live under an unfriendly government. Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which Yahuwah has established. On the other hand Paul does not directly instruct believers on what we ought to do when a government departs from the role God has given it and does not specifically explain what to do when our government is committing a moral wrong (e.g., as in Nazi Germany). The authorities that exist have been established by God. What does the Bible say about government? What does romans 13:1 - 2 mean? Both the Old and New Testament present illustrations of believers whose earthly role placed them in civil service, and they were useful to God there. Yahuwah has never commanded anyone to obey human law in violation of divine law. (Hughes, R. K. Romans: Righteousness from heaven. It is a very unnatural interpretation which makes this word refer to the character of the magistrates, as though the sense were, ‘Be subject to good magistrates.' Romans 13:1-6 Subjection to magistrates enforced. Nero contrived all manner of punishments for the Christians that the most infernal imagination could design. Writing to Titus who was ministering on the isle of Crete which had many rebellious men, empty talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision, Paul instructed Titus to…, Remind (present imperative) - keep reminding them -- they are forgetful would be one implication) them (the believers) to be subject (hupotasso) to rulers, to authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good deed - (Titus 3:1-note). Or, you’re living in Germany in the 1930’s when Adolph Hitler came to power. [Proverbs 8:15]. This persecution was general throughout the whole Roman Empire. A question which the great majority were at least secretly inclined to answer in the negative. The Authority behind the authorities is God. You watch with growing horror as he begins systematically exterminating the Jews. Submission is not the same as obedience, though the two are related. William Barclay - We might be tempted to argue that these passages come from a time when the Roman government had not begun to persecute the Christians. It is a misinterpretation to use Romans 13 to force compliance with unrighteous laws. Finally (Ro 13:6-7), Paul applies it by showing why we should pay taxes, namely, because government officials are servants of God. Nebuchadnezzar’s army destroyed Jerusalem, including the temple, slaughtered many Jewish people, and carried most of the survivors to Babylon. He was a committed Christian pastor living under the atheistic regime of Nazi Germany. There are a number of reasons for this, including what appears to many as a \"crisis in character.\" In any event, this is, generally speaking, the situation. So they say that God ordained the institution of government, not the individual rulers. In short exousia is "the right and the might" (see Ro 9:21). His precepts regard an established power, be it what it may. Romans 13:1 Every person is to be in subjection to the governing authorities. Second, we must love our neighbors as ourselves. Luke 7:8 "For I also am a man placed under authority, with soldiers under me; and I say to this one, 'Go!' It is authored by Paul the Apostle, while he was in Corinth in the mid 50s AD, with the help of an amanuensis, Tertius, who adds his own greeting in Romans 16:22. We've not seen the end of "His"story ("HISTORY") yet!. It is important for believers to be alert to this devilish device for it is being widely used by governments and organized religion to garner support and conformity to unbiblical practices. Romans 13:1(WBS) Verse Thoughts We sometimes feel that we are surrounded by evil leaders who seem to have an anti-God agenda and we find it difficult to understand why. But civil disobedience, whatever the intentions of the participants, will bring down upon them the wrath of the state, and may well thwart movements toward the same objectives that are being done legally, if covertly. He vehemently opposed the Nazification of all Protestant churches and was a sharp critic of Nazi policies. And those who resist shall receive for themselves judgment. Mt 5:39; Lk 21:15; Acts 6:10; 13:8; Ro 9:19-note; Ro 13:2; Gal 2:11; Eph 6:13-note; 2Ti 3:8-note; 2Ti 4:15-note; Jas 4:7-note; 1Pet 5:9-note, There is a right time and a wrong time for opposing…. Yet, the Christian is obligated to honor and obey the magistrates under whose jurisdiction he lives. Tasso can convey the idea of devoted in some context (1Cor 16:15), of doing something regularly and devotedly. (Government - Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology). Subject to the governing authorities: The connection between Romans 12 and Romans 13is clear. Exousia describes the authority a person has delegated to him from someone else. To resist the authorities that God has set in place is to resist what God has commanded and such resisters will bring judgment on themselves. If the Christian is not to seek personal vengeance, it does not take away the government’s authority to punish wrongdoers. I think the issue is crucial because there are many in our churches (many of us) who have not seriously and earnestly asked themselves: Am I more American than I am Christian? Sometimes we’ll work for people we can’t stand. In non-military use, it was "a voluntary attitude of giving in, cooperating, assuming responsibility, and carrying a burden". Authorities (authority) (1849) (exousia) which Vine says evolved "from the meaning of "leave or permission," or liberty of doing as one pleases, it passed to that of "the ability or strength with which one is endued," then to that of the "power of authority," the right to exercise power or "the power of rule or government," the power of one whose will and commands must be obeyed by others. Therefore, the devil has sought a way to beguile them into remaining passive in the face of wrong. Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what Yahuwah has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. Yahuwah has given no man, no power in heaven or earth, the authority to negate His law. Shaman ruled primitive and animistic tribes of South America are no exceptions. If the government forbad us to gather as believers, we should gather anyway. Romans 13:2 Therefore whoever resists authority has opposed the ordinance of God; and they who have opposed will receive condemnation upon themselves. Claudius, the previous emperor, had expelled the Jews from Rome a few years before because he viewed them as dangerous (Acts 18:2). God's intention for authorities in human governments, in part, is to use them to bring judgment on people who do bad things. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is—his good, pleasing and perfect will. This distinction is critical because you may not always be able to obey those who are over you, but you can always have a heart attitude of submission. The beast ( Antichrist ) do not conform to the evil if Hitler be... Right to declare independence from Britain theologian, understood the danger of placing authority! Let us…, 4/Ezekiel is not teaching blind devotion to romans 13 1-2 meaning governing authorities church in America is... Critical Exegetical Commentary, Hughes, R. K. 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