One person with a tractor could handle these huge bales, from harvest to baling to transporting to feeding livestock, without ever touching the hay. [11] Hay was baled for easier handling and to reduce space required for storage and shipment. Once hay is cut, dried and raked into windrows, it is usually gathered into bales or bundles, then hauled to a central location for storage. The bales are stored in the loft or top area of a barn. To cause to exist or happen; bring about; create: made problems for us; making a commotion. The first bales weighed about 300 lb. Hay consists of grasses, and sometimes other types of plants, that are dried and used for livestock feed and other applications. Therefore, some fields were "shut up" for hay. Once the dried hay was rowed up, pitch forks were used to pile it loose, originally onto a horse-drawn cart or wagon, later onto a truck or tractor-drawn trailer, for which a sweep could be used instead of pitch forks. The first growth of these grasses in the spring can be harvested when the grass reaches a height of 14 to 18", or when there is enough growth to justify use of the harvesting equipment. Today, square or round bales of hay can be stored in a barn or other outbuilding with a roof to protect it as much as possible from the weather. Up to the end of the 19th century, grass and legumes were not often grown together because crops were rotated. The original machines were of the vertical design similar to the one photographed by Greene Co. In many stacking methods (with or without thatched tops), stems were oriented in sheaves, which were laid in oriented sequence. Good hay consists of many different kinds of grasses and even much more! Hay can be raked into rows as it is cut, then turned periodically to dry, particularly if a modern swather is used. The same goes for the harvesting of grass hay; the earlier in its growth it is harvested, the more leaf it will have and the better quality it will be. However, to save labor and increase safety, loaders and stackers were also developed to mechanise the transport of small bales from the field to the haystack. A Recipe & Lifestyle Blog. Copyright © 2021 Living History Farms • All Rights Reserved. If the bales are too big, farmers will stack them together and cover them with plastic to keep them fresh. Hay is also stored under a roof when resources permit. Hay is made from the entire plant; leaves, stems, flowers, and sometimes immature seeds. The Calcium in Alfalfa is higher, but the Phosphorus is about the same as grass hay, which could lead to an imbalance in the diet of a given horse. Hay, in agriculture, dried grasses and other foliage used as animal feed. Most producers can’t afford to maintain a lineup of multiple rake types, so some compromises might need to be made for certain situations and fields. The color of the hay will not be as green, and may be quite brown. Q. Mike knows a lot, and I love the show (I listen on KSFC; 91.9 FM), but on a recent program he referred to hay and straw as if they were interchangeable. Hay is the general name for a number of dried grasses, flowers and other plants used as off-season food for horses and other animals. Oat, barley, and wheat plant materials are occasionally cut green and made into hay for animal fodder; however they are more usually used in the form of straw, a harvest byproduct where the stems and dead leaves are baled after the grain has been harvested and threshed. [41], Due to its weight, hay can cause a number of injuries to humans, particularly those related to lifting and moving bales, as well as risks related to stacking and storing. Hay is usually fed to livestock when they cannot graze or be in a pasture, either because it is winter or because of drought. Hay must be fully dried when baled and kept dry in storage. Alfalfa spread rapidly to all parts of the world. See also: hay, make. [25][37] Construction of tall haystacks is sometimes aided with a ramp, ranging from simple poles to a device for building large loose stacks called a beaverslide. [25] People who handle the hay may use hayforks or pitchforks to move or pitch the hay in building haycocks and haystacks. Hay requires protection from weather, and is optimally stored inside buildings,[23]:89 but weather protection is also provided in other ways involving outdoor storage, either in haystacks or in large tight bales (round or rectangular); these methods all depend on the surface of an outdoor mass of hay (stack or bale) taking the hit of the weather and thereby preserving the main body of hay underneath. However, it is also fed to smaller domesticated animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs. The hay would be carried by wagon to the barn where it would be put into the hay loft. They could be powered by steam engines by about 1882. By the 1850s, alfalfa was being grown in California. Thus the biggest challenge and risk for farmers in producing hay crops is the weather, especially the weather of the particular few weeks when the plants are at the best age/maturity for hay. [36] The shape causes dew and rain water roll down the sides, allowing the hay within to cure. Mobile balers, machines which gather and bale hay in one process, were first developed around 1940. When growth is at a maximum in the pasture or field, if judged correctly, it is cut. [28] The words (haystack, haycock) are usually styled as solid compounds, but not always. Nonetheless, because they are cylindrical in shape, and thus can roll easily, it is not uncommon for them to fall from stacks or roll off the equipment used to handle them. Colour Crate Sets $15.00. Methods and the terminology to describe the steps of making hay have varied greatly throughout history, and many regional variations still exist today. The size and shape made it possible for people to pick bales up, stack them on a vehicle for transport to a storage area, then build a haystack by hand. Very carefully. Historical Society. Or, especially with older equipment or methods, the hay is cut and allowed to lie spread out in the field until it is dry, then raked into rows for processing into bales afterwards. John T. Schlebecker, “Whereby We Thrive: A History of American Farming, 1607-1972,”, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "An Introduction to Feeding Small Ruminants", "The Best Method of Managing the Hay Crop", "Equipment to rake and merge hay and forage",, "Contamination on McElmurray farm from human sewage sludge fertilizer", "Milestone Herbicide Creates Killer Compost", "Haystack – Define Haystack at", "The Beaverslide: Homegrown Haying Technology", "Haystack Fires (Spontaneous Combustion)", "Hazards Associated with Using Farm Tractors to Move Large Bales", "JAMA - Fatalities Associated With Large Round Hay Bales—Minnesota, 1994-1996", Hay Harvesting in the 1940s instructional films, Center for Digital Initiatives, University of Vermont Library,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from July 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2008, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 18:45. Loose hay was taken to an area designated for storage—usually a slightly raised area for drainage—and built into a hay stack. The first farmers on the prairie would cut the prairie grasses and use them to feed their livestock. The fibers have good sound and impact absorbing properties. 6. Animals that can eat hay vary in the types of grasses suitable for consumption, the ways they consume hay, and how they digest it. Definition of make hay in the Idioms Dictionary. Unlike ruminants, horses digest food in small portions throughout the day, and can only use approximately 2.5% of their body weight in feed in any 24-hour period. This could mean nutritious grasses like ryegrass or bermudagrass or from legumes like clover or alfalfa. Most of the time, seeds are still intact in a hay bale. Most animals are fed hay in two daily feedings, morning and evening. [12] Later horizontal machines were devised, such as the “Perpetual Press” made by PK Dederick in 1872. If it rains while the hay is drying, turning the windrow can also allow it to dry faster. Today there are two types of mowers used to cut hay that can be pulled by machines. If hay becomes wet, or if it sits in the sun, nutrients can be lost. [42][43], Hay is generally one of the safest feeds to provide to domesticated grazing herbivores. For other uses, see. Hay is made from the stems, leaves, and seed heads of plants that are fresh. The basic idea is that it decreases drying time, particularly in humid climates or if rain interferes with haying. The first balers produced rectangular bales small enough for a person to lift, usually between 70 and 100 pounds (32 and 45 kg) each. The stack was made waterproof as it was built (a skilled task) and the hay would compress under its own weight and cure by the release of heat from the residual moisture in the hay and from the compression forces. During the growing season, which is spring and early summer in temperate climates, grass grows at a fast pace. When needed, slices of hay would be cut using a hay knife and fed out to animals each day. Hay production and harvest, commonly known as "making hay",[8] "haymaking", or "doing hay", involves a multiple step process: cutting, drying or "curing", raking, processing, and storing. [25] In other areas, hay is stacked loose, built around a central pole, a tree, or within an area of three or four poles to add stability to the stack. It is also fed when an animal is unable to access pasture- for example, if the animal is being kept in a stable or barn. However, it is also fed to smaller domesticated animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs. Hay is a feed source for ruminant animals (think cows, goats, and sheep). There is also a risk that hay bales may be moldy, or contain decaying carcasses of small creatures that were accidentally killed by baling equipment and swept up into the bale, which can produce toxins such as botulinum toxin. round bale. Pigs may also be fed hay, but they do not digest it as efficiently as ruminants. If needed the farmer will then add the appropriate amount of fertilizer. If the temperature of a bale exceeds more than 140 °F (60 °C), it can combust. Grass or other plants, such as clover or alfalfa, cut and dried for fodder. It is cut and baled when it has the most nutritional value, and is fed to livestock. Mattresses don't cause pain;it usually begins with an individual, and how they're built. 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